1 Alluvial soil: They are formed by deposition of sediment by rivers. They are rich in humus and very fertile. They are found in the Great Northern Plains, the lower valleys of Narmada and Tapti, and northern Gujarat. This soil is renewed every year.
2 Black soil: This soil is made up of volcanic rocks and lava flows. It focuses on the Deccan lava tract which includes parts of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. It also contains lime, iron, magnesium, and potash but lacks phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic matter.
3 Red clay: They are derived from weathering of ancient metamorphic rocks of Deccan plateau.
Its redness is due to the iron structure. When iron content is low, it is yellow or brown in color. They cover almost the whole of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and parts of Orissa.
4 Soils: These soils are formed due to intense leaching and are well developed on the crest of hills and uplands. They are commonly found in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and hilly regions of Orissa and Assam.
5 Mountain Soils: These soils are formed as a result of accumulation of organic material obtained from forest growth. They are found in the Himalayan region and vary in different regions according to altitude. Tea is grown in areas where there is sufficient rainfall.
6 Desert soil: In the desert areas of Rajasthan, the soil is not well developed. As evaporation occurs in excess of rainfall, the soil has a high salt content and the saline layer forms a hard layer. These soils are generally sandy and lacking in organic matter.